Girdling a tree
The dugout canoe was a common form of transportation for native in Eastern portions of North America. The process of constructing a canoe would take a group of workers about two weeks to complete. The bark would be removed from around a tree in a process called girdling. This process killed the tree. A small fire was then lit at the bottom of the tree and kept burning until the tree was felled. The rest of the bark and limbs were then removed. Fire was then used to shorten the tree trunk to a suitable length. After shaping the outside of the canoe, clay was then used to control the fire and hot coals burning the the interior of the canoe into shape. Excess charcoal was dug out with a stone adze and shell scoops. When finished, the canoe could be used in rivers, streams and ponds for fishing and distant trade.